印度比迪烟工人青睐图片警语 希望改变生活
2008年11月13日来源:烟草在线据加尔各答新闻报道编译

  烟草在线据加尔各答新闻报道编译  11月3日公布的一份新研究表明,烟草业可能抵制图片健康警语,但是数百万的比迪烟工人青睐图片警语,希望改变他们目前的职业。

  “比迪烟工人,大多数是比迪烟民,青睐比迪烟包上的图片健康警语。大约73%的工人同意比迪烟对健康有害,79%的人认为比迪烟包上的健康警语是重要的,至少保护了年轻一代,”印度自愿健康协会开展的此研究表明。

  从12月1日起,卫生部在所有烟草产品上强制实施图片警语,但是烟草游说人员和一些政治家坚决反对这种措施。

  同样地,聚焦于孟加拉邦和古吉拉特邦的该研究发现比迪烟工人非常贫困,健康状况差,情况令人伤感,想转换他们的职业。

  “95%的比迪烟工人想转换到其他维持生计的行业中,”该研究披露。

  在印度,比迪烟行业有大约440万全职工人,还有400万人在比迪烟相关行业从事工作。大多数的工人是贫穷和没有受过教育的妇女。

  尽管每年生产多少比迪烟的数字不祥,但是估计该国每年卷制7500亿支到1.2万亿支比迪烟。

  在健康相关领域工作的联邦自愿组织印度自愿健康协会的首席执行官Alok Mukhopadhyay说,牛奶、干鱼和蚕业是这些比迪烟工人可以从事的一些有利可图的替代职业。

  “如果我们能向月球发送科学任务的话,那么为什么我们不能给数百万每天勉强糊口人们生活的尊严呢?” Mukhopadhyay说。

  印度自愿健康协会的董事Bhavna Mukhopadhyay说,该行业使其雇员持续贫穷。

  “比迪烟卷制工患多种疾病,如肺癌、肺结核以及其他慢性疾病,使他们衰弱,无法转向其他职业,”她说。

  该研究披露比迪烟工人卷制1000支比迪烟仅获微不足道的33卢比,通常需要耗时12个小时。这甚至不到政府规定的最低工资水平的一半。

  该研究还强调了数百亿卢比比迪烟行业悲惨的工作环境,缺乏基本的医疗设施,还无视童工法令。

  估计每年比迪烟导致60万人死亡。

Bidi workers want alternative livelihood, pictorial warning

Calcutta News.Net
Monday 3rd November, 2008 (IANS)

  The tobacco industry might be fighting against pictorial health warnings but millions of bidi workers favour it and are eager to shift from their present occupation, a new study released Monday said.

  "The bidi workers, majority of whom are bidi smokers, are in favour of pictorial health warnings on bidi packets. About 73 percent of the workers agreed that bidis are harmful to health and 79 percent felt that picture based warnings are important on bidi packets, at least to protect the younger generation," said the study conducted by the Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI).

  The health ministry is making pictorial health warnings mandatory on all tobacco products from Dec 1 but the tobacco lobby and some politicians are opposing it vehemently.

  Similarly, the study, which focused on West Bengal and Gujarat, found that bidi workers living in utter poverty, ill health and pathetic conditions want to shift their profession.

  "Over 95 percent of bidi workers want to shift provided other livelihood opportunities are available to them," the study revealed.

  In India, the bidi industry employees around 4.4 million full time workers and additional 4 million in bidi-industry related jobs. Majority of them are poor, illiterate women.

  Though there are no specific figures on how many bidis are produced annually, an estimated 750 billion to 1.2 trillion are rolled every year in the country.

  Alok Mukhopadhyay, the chief executive of VHAI, a federation voluntary organisations working on areas related to health, said milk based occupation, dry fish and sericulture are some of the profitable alternatives that these bidi workers can adopt.

  "If we can send a scientific mission to moon, why can we not rehabilitate millions of people struggling to earn two meals a day and a life of dignity," Mukhopadhyay said.

  Bhavna Mukhopadhyay, the director of VHAI, said the industry is keeping its employees in perennial poverty.

  "Bidi rollers suffer from multiple illness like lung cancer, TB and other chronic ailments, which debilitate them and prevent them from taking any other profession," she said.

  The study revealed that bidi workers get a paltry Rs.33 for rolling 1,000 bidis, which generally takes over 12 hours. "This is not even 50 percent of the minimum wage fixed by the government."

  The study also highlights the deplorable working condition, lack of basic medical facility and flouting of child labour laws by the multi-billion rupees bidi industry.

  It is estimated that bidi smoking kills 600,000 people every year.

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