俄总统希望2050年将烟民人数减少10%以上
2011年08月02日来源:烟草在线据美国之音报道编译

  烟草在线据美国之音报道编译  俄罗斯总统梅德维耶夫希望到2050年的时候,将吸烟者人数减少10%至15%。鉴于有40%的俄罗斯人吸烟,达到这个减少的幅度可谓是雄心勃勃。那么,在这个原先叫做苏联的国家,为什么吸烟那么普遍呢?据一些人认为,很大一部分原因与卷烟广告和商标有关。

  Elena Zlatoustovskaya坐在莫斯科一家流行的餐厅里。她看起来很酷,非常时髦而性感,手里夹着一直超细长的卷烟。至少那是市场营销的奇才们想要让你认为的。Zlatoustovskaya应该知道。她是公关公司Edelman在莫斯科办事处的一名高管。

  她说:“吸烟在俄罗斯是一件相当传统的事情。在俄罗斯,很多女士都吸烟。这对俄罗斯而言确实是个大问题。很多人习惯了吸质量很低、价格很便宜的卷烟。他们只是习惯了吸烟。”

  世界卫生组织说,俄罗斯是世界上吸烟最多的国家之一,人均吸烟者比印度尼西亚或中国还要多。

  据Zlatoustovskaya说,广告商在利用手中的每一件武器,让更多的人吸烟。看到漂亮的年轻女性站在莫斯科一些最流行的大街上,如Tverskaya大街,分发卷烟引诱人们吸烟也是常见的事情。

  她说:“品尝样品非常流行。假设你正走在大街上,靠近地铁站的一名女孩向你走来,说我们有新卷烟。他们会很关注这种行动,这种促销宣传。”

  这种大街层次的促销宣传似乎获得了成功。2009年,俄罗斯是世界上最大的销售目标通常为年轻女性的细长卷烟市场。这种卷烟常常在烟盒上以花为特色。加香卷烟也是最新的事物。

  菲莫的其中一个品牌,即Virginia Slims Uno,既有黑色,也有白色。这个品牌就是为了符合女性的“心情”。这种卷烟的广告,就是以翘臀、优雅的象模特一样外形的女性为特色。

  据菲莫公司说,它的细长卷烟的销售从2006年到2009年增长了91%。

  这些数字使克里姆林宫保持了警惕。俄罗斯发誓到2050年时,将吸烟者的人数减少15%。

  Sophia Malyavina在俄罗斯的卫生部任职。Malyavina说,俄罗斯政府意识到许多年轻人成为卷烟品牌的目标的情况,而政府正在处理这个问题。7月28日,Malyavina在俄罗斯国有的英语电视频道“今日俄罗斯”上讨论了这个问题。

  她说,政府打算从2015年开始,对公共场所吸烟实施全面禁令。此外,Malyavina说,官员们还在讨论提高烟税的问题。她说,卷烟太容易买到了,尤其是对年轻人而言。

  与此同时,政府还禁止在电视上做卷烟广告,并推行在卷烟包装上印制警告标签,上面写着:“吸烟夺人性命”,以及吸烟会引起心脏病发作、中风、死亡和无能等等。

  世界卫生组织希望俄罗斯像其他国家所做的那样,开展更多工作,比如在卷烟包装上印制因吸烟受损的肺的图片。

  公关主任Zlatoustovskaya如何看待俄罗斯印制这样的图片警语的可能性呢?

  他说:“我认为他们不会这么做的。他们从烟草获得了高额税收,因此,我认为他们不会决定说,我们关心我们的人民……我们需要他们身体更健康。那就是我们会尽自己所能来让他们保持健康的原因。现在,我不相信这些。”

  与此同时,俄罗斯卫生部长Tatiana Golikova说,俄罗斯必须尽一切可能来对抗俄罗斯高居不下的吸烟率,因此,她完全赞成在卷烟包装上印制这些令人沮丧的图片。

Russia Pledges to Cut Number of Smokers by 2050

VOA
Jul 25, 2011

  Russian President Dmitry Medvedev wants to cut the number of smokers by 10 to 15 percent by 2050.  Those are huge ambitions considering 40 percent of Russians light up.  So why is it still so popular to smoke in the former Soviet Union?  According to some, much of it has to do with the advertising and branding of cigarettes.

  Elena Zlatoustovskaya sits in a popular Moscow restaurant.  She looks cool, sleek and sexy holding an ultra-slim cigarette between her fingers.  At least that is what marketing wizards would have you think.  And Zlatoustovskaya should know.  She's a top executive at the Moscow office of public relations firm Edelman.

  "Smoking is quite traditional thing in Russia.  A lot of ladies are smoking in Russia.  This is a really big problem for Russia.  A lot of people are accustomed to smoking really cheap cigarettes with low quality tobacco.  They are just accustomed to smoke," she said.

  The World Health Organization says Russia is one of the smokiest nations in the world with more smokers per capita than Indonesia or China.

  And, according to Zlatoustovskaya, advertisers are using every weapon in their arsenal to get even more people lighting up.  It is not unusual to see pretty young women standing on some of the city's most popular streets, like Tverskaya, offering cigarettes to lure people in.

  "Sampling is very popular.  So you're just walking around the street and a girl near the metro station comes to you and says we have new cigarettes. They will pay a lot of attention to that kind of action, that kind of promotion," she said.

  That type of street-level promotion seems to be doing the trick.  In 2009, Russia was the largest market worldwide for slim cigarettes, which are generally targeted towards young women.  These types of cigarettes often feature flowers on their packaging.  Aromatic cigarettes also are the latest thing.

  One of Philip Morris' brands, Virginia Slims Uno, in both black and white is meant to fit a woman's "mood."  Ads for the cigarettes feature hip, sophisticated, model type-looking women on the go.

  According to Phillip Morris, their slim cigarette sales jumped 91 percent from 2006 to 2009.

  Those numbers have put the Kremlin on alert.  Russia has pledged to cut the number of its smokers by up to 15 percent by 2050.

  Sophia Malyavina is with the the country's Ministry of Health.  Malyavina says the government is cognizant of the fact that many young people are being targeted by cigarette branding and the government is working on the problem.  Here she is addressing the situation on Russia's state-run, English-language television channel, Russia Today.

  She says the government is aiming for a total ban on smoking in public places starting in 2015.  Plus, Malyavina says that officials are discussing raising the tax on tobacco.  She says that cigarettes are too affordable, especially for young people.

  Meanwhile, the government has also banned cigarette ads on television and has introduced warning labels on cigarette packages that read "Smoking Kills," and that smoking can cause heart attacks, strokes, death and impotence, among other things.

  The World Health Organizarion wants Russia to do more, as other countries have done, like put graphic images of smoke-ravaged lungs on cigarette packages.

  What does PR director Zlatoustovskaya think about the possibility of that happening?

  "I don't think they would do that.  They get very good taxes from that so I don't think they will decide and say we care about our population…we need them to be more healthy.  That is why we will do our best; we will do whatever we need to do just to keep them healthy.  Now, I don't believe in that."

  Meanwhile, Russia's Health Minister, Tatiana Golikova, says the country has to do everything possible to combat the country's high smoking rate, so she is all for the gloomy pictures.

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